Chemical plant safety, environmental protection, sustainability, government regulations
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Sustainability, energy efficiency, green chemistry
U.S. government agencies, regulations and laws
As in other fields, use of the acronyms in parentheses below tends to identify you as someone who knows about these important matters
· Integrated Risk Information Service (IRIS)
· Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
· Clean Air Act (CAA)
· National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
· Clean Water Act (CWA)
· Occupational Safety and Health Act (same acronym)
· Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) Rules for manufacturing pharmaceuticals, from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
With global commerce, companies often must also follow laws and regulations established by non-U.S. governments and organizations. For example:
Non-governmental safety codes and standards
Often recognized in governmental regulations
Pollution control and environmental protection
Design for Safety
Operate for Safety
· 52 on-line publications (search “Center for Chemical Process Safety”)
· Process Safety Progress On-line journal with excellent research papers.
HAZOP (HAZard and OPerability) and Risk Assessment studies
Software, training, consulting and facilitation are available commercially and can be found on-line. Simulators such as HYSYS, particularly in the dynamics mode (varying with time), can be quite useful in determining the influence of deviations from specified flow rates, compositions, temperatures, pressures, etc. They can also be used to test the effectiveness of control systems to automatically compensate for these deviations without relying on the intervention of a human operator.
Fires, explosions, chemical reaction hazards, toxicity
· A mixture containing a combustible material and oxygen between the upper and lower flammability limits (see below), taking into account pressure, temperature, and oxygen concentration.
· A combustible stream from a condenser at a temperature above its flash point .
· Formation of a pyrophoric reaction product, such as iron maleate from the reaction of maleic acid with iron.
· Perry's pp 26-51 to 26-72.
· Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials Complete and up-to-date source of the fire hazard properties of flammable liquids, gases and volatile solids in air at 1 atm. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 2001 (ISBN 0877654735; $125)
· Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC): page 16-13 and following in the 87th edition.
· “Flammability Characteristics of Combustible Gases and Vapors,” by Michael G. Zabetakis, Bulletin 627, Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior (1965). Excellent (but old) book on flammability of combustible gases and vapor: Extensive collection of data on flammability limits, including plots of influence of oxygen-nitrogen ratio, pressure, temperature. Here is Appendix A, which contains limits of flammability and autoignition temperature for many compounds in air at 1 atm.
· “Limits of Flammability of Gases and Vapors,” by H.F. Coward and G.W. Jones, Bulletin 503, Bureau of Mines (1952). A report preceding the above that also tabulates flammability limits in oxygen and nitrogen oxides, as well as the oxygen percentages below which no mixture is flammable using nitrogen or carbon dioxide as diluents.
· Extended Le Chatelier's formula for mixtures (includes influence of dilution with an inert gas such as carbon dioxide).
· Appendices in Understanding Explosions
· "Fire Hazards in Industry," Norman Thomson, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 141750563X (2002) ebook
· Handling Flammable Liquids (control of electrostatic hazards)
· Emergency Relief System Design Using DIERS Technology - The Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) Project Manual
· On-line chemical reaction predictor for mixtures of more than 6,000 common hazardous chemicals.
· Bretherick's Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards Ref 660.2804 B844h4
· Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials Ref 604.7 S272d9
Disclaimer: The material on these pages is intended for instructional purposes by Clarkson University students only. Neither Clarkson University nor Professor Wilcox are responsible for problems caused by using this information.
Last updated September 5, 2012. Comments and corrections should be sent to Professor William R. Wilcox