Inverting Amplifier Design

The circuit shown below is called an inverting amplifier. The op amp in this circuit must be biased using DC voltage sources. (As is conventional, these DC sources are not shown in the drawing of the inverting amplifier.) The sizes of these voltage sources determine the voltage, , at which the op amp saturates.

When the op amp is not saturated, the inverting amplifier produces an output voltage, Vo, that is proportional to the input voltage, Vs. The output voltage is measured using a voltmeter. The input voltage is the voltage of the voltage source.

The output of the inverting amplifier is given by.

In this example, volt sources were used. As a consequence, the op amp saturates at volts (i.e. = 20 volts).